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Everything posted by BaalChatzaf

  1. Climate is, roughly speaking, average weather over a moving 30 year interval. 30 years is considered the smallest interval that can indicate climate conditions. Several things are averaged; temperature, humidity, precipitation, growing season length etc. Climate change is the sequence of climate data points (each computered as stated prior over a 30 year interval). A sequence of climate data points as a function of time defines climate change. To be more exact that should be regional climate. There is no One and Only climate for this planet. There are several concurrent climate regimes acting and interaction over the planet. For example, climate in the polar regions is colder than climate in the tropics. That must be for the simple reason that the tropics get direct sunlight and the polar regions get sunlight at a slant. The various climate regimes must change over time because the Earth is never in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surround space. Our distance from the sun varies over time, the earth precesses around its axis of rotation, the Sun's irradiance varies over time and cosmic ray impact varies over time. Cosmic Rays!!???. Yes. Cosmic rays affect how water vapor in the atmosphere condense around dust particles in the air which affects the process of cloud formation. Clouds are the Venetian Blinds or the various climate regimes and have a significant effect on temperature. The major flaw in the premise of the Warmists is that there is an Ideal Climate from which our planet is forced to diverge because of CO2 production (mostly from burning hydrocarbon fuels). There is no Ideal Climate and there never was. Our general climate is a succession of ice ages separated by warmer interglacial periods. The last major ice age started about three million years ago and we are still in that ice age, enjoying one of several mild interglacial periods. Technically (this is a technical definition) we are in an ice age as long as there is permanent ice at the poles. Even our current interglacial period is marked by periods of warming a cooling. That last freeze-you-ass-off cooling was the (so-called) Little Ice Age which was in reality a cool periods that lasted from 1300 c.e. to 1815 c.e. (roughly). Since 1815 the world has been warming a few degrees from purely natural causes. Since 1850 the rate of increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has risen rapidly. That is because humans are burning stuff and producing CO2 faster than it can be absorbed by plants, weather of limestone rocks and dissolution of CO2 in the oceans. Since this rise in CO2 is concurrent with an already existing rise in temperature the alarmists have decided it is our fault because of the concurrent rise in CO2 concentration. In fact the most powerful greenhouse gas (so-called) is water vapor, not CO2 or methane (CH4). Of a 1.5 deg rise in temperature since 1815 humans may have cause a 0.5 deg. rise portion of the 1.5 deg rise. The alarmists are alarmed (alarmists are always alarmed by one thing or another) because of the rate CO2 addition to the atmosphere. So climate is changing. It is always changing and will continue to change for the next 1.5 billion years until the Sun becomes so hot it evaporates the oceans. Our vast oceans are why the Earth has not become Venus. The Sun will burn hotter and hotter as the hydrogen in the Sun is fused into helium and the helium is fused into carbon. The earth will eventually be baked dry and life will cease to exist on the surface as the oceans are evaporated into space. This will occur several billion years before the Earth itself is gasified by an expanding Sun (the Red Giant phase). That will be about 5 billion years from now. Our last 3 million years has ben a succession of ice age glaciation with intermediate mild periods. The next several million years should be about the same. Here is a graph:
  2. The key to the warming effect of the greenhouse gases is the stephan-boltzmann law. The greenhouse gasses absorb heat and reradiate in all directions. Which means half the heat absorbed radiated downward . The effect of the greenhouse gasses is slow the rate at which energy in the infrared frequencies is radiated into space (which is the cold sink for Earth's heat). According to the stephan boltzmann law the temperature will rise until the outward flux of energy is equal to inbound flux of energy (from the Sun). Please see:–Boltzmann_law
  3. But it won't last. Mammalian species have a relatively short shelf life compared to insects and single cell organisms.
  4. The same thing can be done with a string and two thumbtacks. Please see
  5. The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively "Eocene thermal maximum 1" (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum", was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today. The CO2 level was at 550 ppm. This was 55 million years ago. This very warm period lasted 200,000 years and did NOT produce an unstoppable warming. Life flourished subsequent to this period. Eventually the CO2 level and temperature levels went down and several million years of hard ice age and glaciation followed. If the PETM did not turn us into Venus, nothing we are doing now will. Humans do not possess the technology to sterilize this planet. However there is little doubt that we could kill ourselves off if we set our minds to it. But no matter what we do, the Earth will remain an abode of life for the next billion years barring an exceedingly large celestial body colliding with Earth and busting the planet into little pieces.
  6. The meteorologists consider a 30 year running average of temperature, humidity, ghg levels. sea levels cloud cover as a climate data point. One day's weather doth not make climate. 30 years average weather is a climate data point.
  7. On any given day of any given year there is always somewhere, where the weather is "interesting". Weather is NOT climate.
  8. not true. She provided a good expression of what I was thinking about (ugh!) government, politics and the state. On scientific and mathematical issues she was a great Hollywood script writer.
  9. Science parted company with metaphysics over 100 years go. The only philosopher that physicists mention without spitting is Carl Popper.
  10. if he starts out from a pole he will end up back at the same place. Look at case 2 where he starts at at a non polar point. Unless step 2 of his journey ends at exactly the same point step 1 ended he does not get back because terminates step 2 and a different meridian of longitude form the meridian he was on at step 1.
  11. It was a brief infatuation. I have come see that E.M. is a Crony Capitalist and his management of Tesla Motors is an abomination. It is true that his is brighter than most old line corporate capitalists, but his intellectual glitz cannot hide two things 1. He lusts and longs for government funded projects and 2. His intellectual reach exceeds his intellectual grasp. I regard Captain Bullshit as an entertainment, not the second coming of John Galt.
  12. The original problem was walk a mile south walk a mile west (was it east -- no matter) walk a mile north. The east-west walk is less than the length of line of latitude reached by the southword leg so that the return trip is along a different line of longitude. Let me give an example. The coordinates of the north geographic pole are (90, lon) where lon can be any angle between 0 and 360. The north geographic pole and the south geographic pole are the only two points on the earth sphere that do not have unique coordinate. Now let me widen the problem out Start at a point, walk to the equator in a southerly direction, walk east along the equator the same number of steps that one took to reach the equator then march in a northerly direction the same number of step. Two cases: Case 1 the starting point is the north pole. Assume the first leg is south along the Greenwich meridian, that is to say 0 longitude. This gets us down to (0, 0) on the equator. Walk west the same distance and we get to (0, 90). Now walk north the same distance and we get to (90,90) which is the same point as (90, 0) the north pole. Case 2. The starting point is (x-lat, x-long) where x-lat is greater than 0 and less than 90. Assume x-long = 0 without loss of generality. Now leg 1: (x-lat, 0) to (x1, 0) where x1 < x-lat and greater or equal to 0. Leg 2 (x1,0) (x1, y1) where y1 > 0 but < 360. That means leg2 moved us to a different point with the same latitude. Now leg 3 northward by the same distance. This gets is to (x2, y1) because going north means following a meridian of longitude. Notice that x2 not = x1. The final destination is (x2, y1) which is different from (x-lat, 0). So we do not end up at the same place if we started out from a point that was not the pole. Q.E.D. Forget drawings. The proof is abstract and mathematical. Drawings are crutches for the logically feeble.
  13. That last leg is NOT on the same line of longitude as the first leg. Why? Because the second leg is a traverse along a line of latitude which changes the longitude.
  14. ALL northbound travel is along a line of longitude. Any other path or direction is NOT north or south. Since the last leg of this three part journey is north along a line of longitude different from the first leg the end point must lie on the intersection of the two lines of longitude, hence it is a pole. Given the conditions of the problem it is the north pole.
  15. No. The problem state that the traveler started at a point, went a mile south then a mile west and then a mile north and ended where he started. That means his end point had to be on the intersection of two lines of longitude. Travelling North-South means travelling on a line of longitude. Travelling East West means travelling on a line of latitude parallel to the equator.
  16. Since two legs of the walk, the first and the third are along lines of longitude one must end up where the lines of longitude intersect. Under the conditions of the puzzle that would be the north geographic pole. The three logs are along a line of longitude, a line of latitude and a line of longitude the conditions of the puzzle require that the journey begin and end at a pole.
  17. A disk mounted on a mathematically thin axle with a bearing one point thick at the center.
  18. North mean North a line of longitude. Longitudes all intersect at exactly two points. The geographic north pole and the geographic south pole. Walking north-west is NOT walking north.
  19. I don't do You Tubies. How about a latitude and a longitude?
  20. What if the stuff in Monsanto's weed killer really did substantially increase the probability of getting non-Hodgkins Lymphoma? If Monsanto did not post a clear warning about the danger wouldn't the company be liable for damages?